Nervous system: neurones and synapse

All mammals have a CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and a PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The CNS is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves and receptores.

The NEURONES are special cells which coordinate the messages travelling through the nervous system.

  1. ANATOMY OF A NEURONE: Watch THIS video!
  • Act: State how the structure of a neurone is related to the function.

2. TYPES OF NEURONES: Read “overiew of neurone structure and function from HERE .

  • Act: Make a labelled drawing of each of the three types of neurones, motor, sensory and relay, and state their functions.


  • Act: Post a short video explaining synapse.
  • Act: Describe in your own words how nerve impulses are transmitted from neurone to neurone.


  1. The function of a neurone is transmitting signals across the body. It’s structure is really connected to this function as the dendrites (extensions of neurons which are in charge of receiving signals and takes them to the cell body) and axon (extension which drive signals away fro the cell body) can extend across the body, making it possible to send signals really far away.

Sensory neurons receive information from inside and outside of the body and sends it to the central nervous system

Motor neurons receive information and sends commands to your muscles, glands or organs.

Relay neurons or interneurons are only found in the central nervous system and they receive information from sensory or relay neurons and pass the information to motor or relay neurons.


Synapse is the term given to the place at which two neurons (one dendrite and one axon) connect and one sends information to another.

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